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The LNF is a micro and nanofabrication facility. This lab excels at combining technologies and materials within a single device, for example, optical or mechanical sensors with integrated processing circuitry and onboard power generation. Silicon is the most common substrate material as it is relatively inexpensive, has a wide variety of useful properties, and is easy to machine. III-V compound semiconductors also have a long history at the LNF, and substrates consisting of other materials with unique properties are becoming more common. Most of our hardware can handle small pieces up to 150mm round substrates.


Below are links to the main groups of technologies available at the LNF.

Deposition and growth

Main article: Deposition

The choice, among the many different types of deposition techniques, depends on the material to be deposited, its thickness, the substrate on which it needs to be processed, temperature range, quality of the film, physical characteristics of the film, cost, availability, and several other parameters. Below we present a wide variety of techniques that could address some or all of the qualities and characteristics desired on the thin film to be deposited.

Lithography, direct writing and mask making

Main article: Lithography

The fabrication of devices and structures require patterning, typically through optical lithography or electron-beam lithography, depending on the dimensions needed. Photomasks fabrication is also supported at the LNF. In addition, several technologies for direct writing such as inkjet printing and dip-pen nanolithography are available, and a dedicated area is used for soft lithography and SU-8/PDMS processing. Nanoimprinting equipment is also in place in the LNF but requires special arrangements for access and training as it is currently owned and managed by an individual research group. Please see below for several links to the specific lithography technologies supported at the LNF.


Main article: Etching

Both dry and wet etching with a wide range of characterized processes and recipes are available at the LNF to transfer the desired pattern onto your samples.

Thermal processing

Main article: Thermal processing

Thermal processing includes several different technologies from annealing to doping, diffusion, or oxidation.

Chemical processing

Main article: Chemical processing

The LNF offers a wide range of wet processing stations for cleaning, wet etching, lithography support, electroplating, and other general wet processing. Material segregation is critical in wet bench processing.

Metrology and characterization

Main article: Metrology

Many different technologies are available at the LNF for metrology and characterization of films, materials, and structures. For more detailed information and discussion, please see the metrology page.

Packaging and mechanical finishing

Packaging technologies are well presented at the LNF, and many additional capabilities are also available for mechanical finishing and back end of the line technologies.

Mechanical finishing

Main article: Mechanical finishing


Main article: Packaging

Other processing

In addition, there are several other technologies that do not necessarily fall under any of the groups listed above.


Equipment in the LNF is organized by technology. If you know the specific piece of equipment you are looking for, you can search for it, browse the different equipment categories below, or see a complete list of interlocked equipment here.


Below is a brief list of the materials that are commonly used in the LNF.

Please note that these materials are not necessarily allowed on all tools: the LNF has a tool segregation policy to minimize cross-contamination and impact on research projects. See the dedicated wiki page on material restrictions for more details.

If you are interested in using a material that is not listed here, please create a Helpdesk ticket or contact the LNF user services group directly via


Metals and conductors

Ceramic Dielectrics

Polymers and organic materials


Other (2D-Materials?)