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Copper is a chemical element with the atomic number of 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with a high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper appears pinkish-orange. Copper is often deposited using electoplating.
Process technologies that can be used to deposit/pattern this material.
In the semiconductor industry, the use of copper has continued to grow. Copper is typically applied by layering copper electrolytically onto a surface. The main application for copper plating is to improve the conductivity of a substrate, since copper is a highly conductive element.
Copper plating is done using a Sulfuric Acid based solution. Copper plating occurs in an electrolytic cell. Electrolysis (a technique that drives a non-spontaneous reaction using a DC current) is used to dissolve a copper rod and transport the copper ions to the substrate. A copper rod and a substrate are placed in the plating solution where the direct electric current flows from the copper rod (anode) to the substrate (cathode). The flow of the current causes the copper to ionize, or lose electrons. The copper then will physically flows to the item, where the copper is then reduced to the metallic state by gaining electrons. The end result is a thin, solid, metallic copper film on the surface of the substrate.
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