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Sputter deposition

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<!-- Make sure to categorize page as "Equipment" and its subcategory --><!-- Set the resource ID, 5 digit # found on the scheduler --><!-- {{#vardefine:toolid|Sputter_Deposition}} --><!-- Set the Process Technology (see subcategories on Equipment page) -->{{#vardefine:infobox technology|PVD}}<!-- Set the Material Restriction Level: 1 = CMOS Clean, 2 = Semi-Clean, 3 = Metals -->{{#vardefine:restriction|3}}{{infobox equipment
|image = Sputter Deposition.png
|caption =
|materials = [[Silver|Ag]], [[Aluminum|Al]], [[Aluminum oxide|Al2O3]], [[Gold|Au]], [[Chromium|Cr]], [[Copper|Cu]], [[Iron|Fe]], [[Germanium|Ge]], [[Nickel|Ni]], [[Platinum|Pt]], [[Silicon dioxide|SiO2]], [[Titanium|Ti]], [[Titanium dioxide|TiO2]], [[Zinc|Zn]]
|mask =|size = 6", 4", 3" and 2" wafers, Pieces|chemicals =|gases = Ar, N2, O2 1%, O2 0.1%|overview = [[Wikipedia:Sputter_deposition|General Overview: Wikipedia Sputter Deposition]]|sop = |processes = |maintenance technology = PVD
}}
[[{{warning|This page has not been released yet.PAGENAME}}]] is a [[physical vapor deposition]] method of thin film deposition in which a high-purity source material (called a cathode or target) is subjected to a gas plasma (typically [[argon]]). The energetic atoms in this gas plasma collide with the target material and knock off source atoms which then travel to the substrate and condense into a thin film.
==Equipment==The LNF has 4 sputter deposition tools* [[Wikipedia:Sputter_depositionEndeavor_M1_AlN_Sputter_Tool|Endeavor M1 Aluminum Nitride Sputter DepositionTool]]* [[Lab 18-1|Lab 18-1]]* [[Lab 18-2|Lab 18-2]] is a physical vapor deposition (* [[PVD 75 Proline|PVD) method of thin film deposition in which a high-purity source material (called a cathode or target) is subjected to a gas plasma (typically Ar.) The energetic atoms in this gas plasma collide with the target material and knock off source atoms which then travel to the substrate and condense into a thin film.75]]
==Figures of Merit=Endeavor M1 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool==={{main|Endeavor_M1_AlN_Sputter_Tool}} *Materials deposited: AlN, Al*The Endeavor M1 tool is designed specifically for '''Piezoelectric AlN on either 4" or 6" wafers'''. It is a high temperature process that works only on certain substrates with specific seeding materials and the handler is designed to process both 4" (via 6" carrier) or 6" wafers.
===UniformityLab 18-1===Uniformity measures the variation in thickness across a substrate and is usually expressed as a percentage. Typically: (Thickness Max {{main|Lab 18- Thickness Min)/Thickness Average. 1}}Uniformity is typically set by the material being deposited and the geometry of the system*Materials Deposited: throw distance[[Al2O3|Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>]], [[Indium tin oxide|ITO]], [[Molybdenum|Mo]], [[Silicon|Si]], [[Silicon dioxide|SiO<sub>2</sub>]], [[Silicon nitride|Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>]], [[Tantalum|Ta]], [[Tantalum|Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>]], [[Titanium|Ti]], substrate rotation and deposition angle.*In sputtering[[Titanium dioxide|TiO<sub>2</sub>]], [[Vanadium|V]], uniformity is determined by throw distance and the shape of the deposition [[Vanadium Pentoxide|V2O5]]**In the Denton and Lab 18 tools-1 is a loadlocked magnetron sputter tool used for depositing '''less common metals, smaller sources eject material from the face of insulators, optical and semiconductive films.''' It has a 3" target variable-gated turbo pump and more sensitive gas flows that is angled allow it to cover around run more sensitive gas ratios (<1/2 of the substrate area%) for reactive sputtering. The substrate is rotated to coat the entire area It has a DC supply for conductive materials and RF supplies for electrically insulating materials. Varying the angle will Deposition rates vary the throw distance and change the amount deposited on the center and edgeby material but are generally much slower for RF depositions. The supplies have tool supports 5 materials at a set throw angle that is optimized for best uniformity.**In the ALN tooltime, rotated using the wafer is centered over two targets which are larger than the substrate[https://docs.google.com/a/lnf. Uniformity can be only be adjusted using the DC supply which raises and lowers the power to the center targetumich.edu/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AsWeTTMTotIfdExOSHBhSVQ4dUpyRFFpWE5icEMwZlE#gid=23|Lab 18-1 Target Change Calendar]
===Lab 18-2===
{{main|Lab 18-2}}
*Materials: [[Aluminum|Al]],[[Chromium|Cr]],[[Gold|Au]],[[Iridium|Ir]],[[Nickel|Ni]],[[Platinum|Pt]],[[Silver|Ag]],[[Titanium|Ti]],[[Tungsten|W]],[[Tungsten:Titanium-9:1|W-Ti]]
*Lab 18-2 is a loadlocked magnetron sputter tool used for mostly for '''depositing common and precious metals.''' The tool supports 5 materials at a time, rotated using the [https://docs.google.com/a/lnf.umich.edu/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AsWeTTMTotIfdGxLMlpVZm1NSlF0SDJMU3hvRFctR1E#gid=13|Lab 18-2 Target Change Calendar]
===PVD 75 Sputter Tool===
{{main|PVD 75 Proline}}
*Materials deposited: [[Al2O3|Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>]], [[Aluminum|Al]], [[Chromium|Cr]], [[Copper|Cu]], [[Cobalt|Co]], [[Iron|Fe]], [[Molybdenum|Mo]], [[Silicon|Si]], [[Silicon dioxide|SiO<sub>2</sub>]], [[Silicon nitride|Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>]], [[Nickel|Ni]], [[Silver|Ag]], [[Titanium|Ti]], [[Tungsten|W]]
*The PVD 75 tool is designed specifically for '''point of use processing of materials not allowed or not currently in the Lab 18 tools.''' It is an open loop (non-loadlocked) tool with easier-to-change targets. Qualified users can change targets when they vent the chamber to load their samples.
===Deposition Rate, Stress, Resistivity and Step Coverage=Materials==Typical response of sputtering The following materials can be summarizeddeposited via Magnetron sputter deposition at the LNF.Please note some materials are rarely used in these cases, additional work will be needed to validate process conditions and the rate of deposition.*[[Aluminum|Aluminum(Al)]]*[[Aluminum oxide|Aluminum oxide(Al2O3)]]*[[Chromium|Chromium(Cr)]]*[[Copper|Copper(Cu)]]*[[Cobalt|Cobalt(Co)]]*[[Gold|Gold (Au)]]<!--*[[Germanium|Germanium(Ge)]]-->*[[Germanium|Germanium(Ge)]]*[[Iron|Iron(Fe)]]*[[Indium tin oxide|Indium tin oxide(ITO)]]*[[Molybdenum|Molybdenum(Mo)]]*[[Nickel|Nickel (Ni)]]*[[Platinum|Platinum(Pt)]]*[[Silicon|Silicon (Si)]]*[[Silicon dioxide|Silicon dioxide(SiO2)]]*[[Silicon nitride|Silicon nitride(SiN)]]*[[Silver|Silver(Ag)]]*[[Tantalum|Tantalum(Ta)]]*[[Tantalum oxide|Tantalum oxide(Ta2O5)]]*[[Titanium|Titanium(Ti)]]*[[Titanium oxide|Titanium oxide(TiO2)]]<!--*[[Titanium dioxide|Titanium dioxide(TiO2)]]-->*[[Tungsten|Tungsten(W)]]*[[Tungsten-Titanium 90:10|Tungsten-Titanium 90:10(W-Ti)]]*[[Vanadium|Vanadium(V)]]*[[Vanadium Pentoxide|Vanadium Pentoxide(V2O5)]]
<gallery mode="packed-hover" heights="440px">Method of operation==Sputter Process Trend ChartSputtering is not typically done on liftoff samples or shadow masks. Therefore it is typically done as a blanket deposition that will be patterned and etched later if patterning is needed. Samples should be clean and vacuum-safe and should be able to handle a small amount of plasma heating. It is recommended that if there is any organic processing done to samples that they are cleaned in an oxygen plasma.jpg</gallery>
==LNF Capabilities==<!Samples are introduced into a vacuum chamber (either loaded in a vented chamber or sent in from a loadlock) with the proper source target materials. The sample is heated and etched before deposition if the process requires it. Ar is then introduced to the chamber until a desired sputtering pressure is reached and then power is applied the targets to strike a sputtering plasma. The target power is then ramped up slowly while being shielded from the samples by a shutter. Once the pre--A more general description sputter sequence is finished, the shutter opens and the deposition is timed to achieve the desired thickness of what film. The shutter closes, power is ramped down and the sputtering Ar gas is pumped out. Multiple films may be run by repeating this process with a different source targets. The samples are then removed from the chamber and the tool is capable of doingpumped back to a low base pressure.-->*The LNF has 4 Sputter Deposition Tools** [[Lab 18-1|Lab 18-1]]** [[Lab 18-2|Lab 18-2]]** [[AMS 2004 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool|AMS 2004 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool]]** [[Denton Explorer-14|Denton Explorer-14]]
==Applications==
{{expand section}}
*==Figures of merit==The following materials can be deposited using Magnetron Sputter Deposition.**figures of merit are described in the generic [[AluminumPhysical vapor deposition |Aluminum(Al)PVD]]page**[[Aluminum oxide|Aluminum oxide(Al2O3)]]===Responses of figures of merit with parameter changes===**[[Chromium|Chromium(Cr)]]====Deposition Rate, Stress, Resistivity and Step Coverage====**[[Copper|CopperAlthough many films (Cuespecially reactive films and insulating compounds)]]**[[Gold|Gold (Au)]]**[[Germanium|Germanium(Ge)]]**[[Iron|Iron(Fe)]]**[[Nickel|Nickel (Ni)]]**[[Platinum|Platinum(Pt)]]**[[Silicon dioxide|Silicon dioxide(SiO2)]]**[[Silicon nitride|Silicon nitride(SiN)]]**[[Silver|Silver(Ag)]]**[[Titanium|Titanium(Ti)]]**[[Titanium dioxide|Titanium dioxide(TiO2)]]**[[Zinc|Zinc(Zn)]]may vary in their response, typical sputtering variables can be summarized in this trend chart:
<gallery mode="packed-hover" heights="600px">
Sputter Process Trend Chart.jpg
</gallery>
====Uniformity====
Uniformity is set by the material being deposited and the geometry of the system: throw distance, target size, substrate rotation and deposition angle.
*In sputtering, uniformity is determined by throw distance and the shape of the deposition cone.
**In the PVD 75 and Lab 18 tools, smaller sources eject material from the face of a 3" target that is angled to cover around 1/2 of the substrate area. The substrate is rotated to coat the entire area. Varying the angle will vary the throw distance and change the amount deposited on the center and edge. The supplies have a set throw angle that is optimized for best uniformity.
**In the ALN tool, the wafer is centered over two targets which are larger than the substrate. Uniformity can be only be adjusted using the DC supply which raises and lowers the power to the center target.
===Lab 18-1=See also=={{main|Lab 18-1}}*Materials Deposited: [[Al2O3|Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>]], [[Indium-Tin-Oxide|ITOPhysical vapor deposition]], * [[Molybdenum|Mo]], [[Silicon|Si]], [[Silicon Dioxide|SiO<sub>2</sub>]], [[Silicon Nitride|Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>]], [[Tantalum|Ta]], [[Tantalum|Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>]], [[Titanium|Ti]], [[Titanium Dioxide|TiO<sub>2</sub>Deposition]]*Lab 18-1 is a loadlocked magnetron sputter tool used for depositing metals, insulators, optical and semiconductive films. It has a variable-gated turbo pump and more sensitive gas flows that allow it to run more sensitive gas ratios (<1%) for reactive sputtering. It has a DC supply for conductive materials and RF supplies for electrically insulating materials. Deposition rates vary by material but are generally mich slower for RF depositions. The tool supports 5 materials at a time, rotated using the [https[://docs.google.com/a/lnf.umich.edu/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AsWeTTMTotIfdExOSHBhSVQ4dUpyRFFpWE5icEMwZlE#gid=23|Lab 18-1 Target Change Calendar] ===Lab 18-2==={{main|Lab 18-2}}*MaterialsCategory: [[AluminumPVD equipment|Al]],[[Chromium|Cr]],[[Copper|Cu]],[[Gold|Au]],[[Germanium|Ge]],[[Iridium|Ir]],[[Nickel|Ni]],[[Nickel-Chromium|NiCr]],[[Platinum|Pt]],[[Silicon|Si]],[[Silver|Ag]],[[Titanium|TiList of PVD equipment]]*Lab 18<!-2 is a loadlocked magnetron sputter tool used for mostly for depositing metals. It uses DC for conductive materials and RF for electrically insulating materials. Deposition rates vary by material but are generally slower for RF depositions. The tool supports 5 materials at a time, rotated using the [https://docs.google.com/a/lnf.umich.edu/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AsWeTTMTotIfdGxLMlpVZm1NSlF0SDJMU3hvRFctR1E#gid=13|Lab 18-2 Target Change Calendar] ===Denton Explorer==={{main|Denton Explorer}}*The Denton Explorer is an open-loop 2-source magnetron sputter tool used as a Lab 18 backup for depositing metal films ===AMS 2004 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool==={{main|AMS 2004 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool}}*Materials deposited: AlN, Al*The AMS tool is designed specifically for Piezoelectric AlN on 4" wafers. It is a high temperature process that works only on certain substrates with specific seeding matetrials and the handler is only designed for 4" wafers are this time. 
==References==
<references />
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==Further reading==
*[http://lnf-wiki.eecs.umich.edu/wiki/User_Resources#LNF_Tech_Talks_.28technology_seminar_series.29 LNF Tech Talk for PVD]
*[[Wikipedia:Sputter_deposition|General Overview: Wikipedia Sputter Deposition]]
 
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