[[Chemical vapor deposition]] (CVD) consists of the substrate being exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit. There are many methods for enhancing the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. The LNF has fourteen [[Low pressure chemical vapor deposition| Low Pressure CVD (LPCVD)]] furnace tubes and five [[Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition| Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD)]] chambers.
Electrodeposition/ Electroplating / Electrochemical deposition (ECD)===
Electrodeposition, which is only available on conductive substrates and for conductive films, is the technique recommended when metal layers of more than a micron of thickness are needed. It is also the technique of choice when there is no line of site with the surface to be deposited, for example the filling of vias in the semiconductor processing. The principle is simple: positive ions are attracted to the negative electrode (anode which is the sample in the case of metal deposition) and negative ions travel towards the cathode or positive electrode. ECD is an electrochemical cell, which consists of a cathode, anode, and electrolyte that contains the ion to be deposited. Electrodeposition does not require vacuum environment, thus making it relatively inexpensive and it can be done in batch or continue processes. It creates thick, durable film which surface finish can be tailored depending on the requirements.
===Physical vapor deposition (PVD)===