Typical technologies include atomic layer deposition (ALD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electrodeposition/ electroplating or electrochemical deposition (ECD),
and physical vapor deposition (PVD) molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Selection of deposition technique depends on material deposited, desired film characteristics and substrate temperature tolerance:
Deposition rate, usually expressed in Å/sec, is measured at the substrate using various methods depending on the type of film deposited. It is measured real-time in the evaporators and after run completion for other techniques.
Can be called stoichiometry. Usually expressed in atomic % or weight % defines the film behavior, optical constants, stresses, etch rates, physical properties like melting point, vapor pressure, etc.
Defines optical properties of a given material for a specific frequency or wavelength of light. Also known as index of refraction n. The index of
the film is measured using [[Ellipsometry]] that also gives clues to the density, dielectric constant, and stoichiometry of the film <ref name=handbook>Handbook of Thin Film Deposition: Processes and Technologies</ref>.
===Conformality or Step Coverage===
Step coverage is the measure of how much coating is on the bottom/sidewall of a feature vs how much coating is on the top/field areas. It is highly dependent on the geometry of the features and the type of deposition chosen. ALD, TEOS, HTO, and
Thermal oxide are very conformal. LTO, PECVD, Sputtering, and Evaporation are much less conformal.