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Typical technologies include atomic layer deposition (ALD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electrodeposition/ electroplating or electrochemical deposition (ECD), and physical vapor deposition (PVD) , and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Selection of deposition technique depends on material deposited, desired film characteristics and substrate temperature tolerance:
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Deposition rate, usually expressed in Å/sec, is measured at the substrate using various methods depending on the type of film deposited. It is measured real-time in the evaporators and after run completion for other techniques.
===Film Composition===
Can be called Also known as stoichiometry. Usually expressed in units of atomic % or weight % defines the . Film composition affects film behavior, optical constants, stressesstress, etch rates, and other physical properties like melting point, vapor pressure, etc.
===Refractive index===
Defines optical properties of a given material for a specific frequency or wavelength of light. Also known as index of refraction , or n. The refractive index of the a film is can be measured using [[Ellipsometry]] that and also gives clues as to the density, dielectric constant, and stoichiometry of the film <ref name=handbook>Handbook of Thin Film Deposition: Processes and Technologies</ref>.
===Conformality or Step Coverage===
Step coverage is the measure of how much coating is on the bottom/sidewall of a feature vs . how much coating is on the top/field areas. It is highly dependent on the geometry of the features and the type of deposition chosen. ALD, TEOS, HTO, and Thermal thermal oxide are very conformal. LTO, PECVD, Sputteringsputtering, and Evaporation evaporation are much less conformal.
===Film Stress===


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