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Deposition

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{| class="wikitable"
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Deposition Methodmethod
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Materials
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Deposition Raterate! style="font-weight: bold;" | Substrate Temperaturetemperature
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Confomality
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Film Densitydensity! style="font-weight: bold;" | Impurity Levelslevels
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Uniformity
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Grain Sizesize! style="font-weight: bold;" | Primarily Used for:Primary use
|-
| [[Evaporation]]
| Metals and Dielectricsdielectrics| 1-15 1–15{{nbsp}}Å/sec| 10-100ºC10–100ºC| Highly directional - no No sidewall coverage
| Poor
| Low
| Poor
| 10-100nm10–100{{nbsp}}nm| Works well with liftoff [[lift-off]] patterning
|-
| [[Sputter deposition]]
| Metals and dielectrics
| 0.1-10 1–10{{nbsp}}Å/sec| 50-300ºC50–300ºC
| Some sidewall coverage
| Good
| Low
| Good
| ~10nm10{{nbsp}}nm| More conformal Conformal metal and dielectric thin film depositionfilms. Better stoichiometry than evaporation for maintaining stoichiometry of compounds
|-
| [[Parylene deposition| CVD Parylene Depositiondeposition]]
| Parylene
| ~30-50Å30–50{{nbsp}}Å/sec
| 20ºC
| Good Sidewall sidewall coverage
| Good
| Very Lowlow
| Good
| unknownUnknown| Thick (0.8-75μm8–75μm) encapsulation and insulation; <br>Biocompatible
|-
| [[Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition| Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD)]]
| Mainly Dielectrics| 5-200Å5–200{{nbsp}}Å/sec| 200-400ºC200–400ºC
| Some sidewall coverage
| Good
| Very Lowlow
| Good
| 10-100nm10–100{{nbsp}}nm| Lower temp temperature oxide/nitride deposition
|-
| [[Low pressure chemical vapor deposition| Low Pressure pressure CVD (LPCVD)]]
| Mainly Dielectrics
| 10-100 10–100{{nbsp}}Å/sec| 600-1200ºC600–1200ºC| Isotropic - good Good sidewall coverage| Very Goodgood| Very Lowlow| Very Goodgood| 1-10nm1–10{{nbsp}}nm
| Better quality oxide/nitride dep where substrate can handle higher temp
|-
| [[Thermal oxidation]]
| Oxide on Siliconsilicon| 0.1-100 1–100{{nbsp}}Å/sec| 900-1200ºC900–1200ºC| Isotropic - very Very good sidewall coverage| Very Goodgood| Very Lowlow| Very Goodgood| 1-10nm1–10{{nbsp}}nm
| Best quality oxide when substrate can handle higher temp and slower dep rate
|-
| Conductive Materials
| Depends on process
| 0-100ºC0–100{{nbsp}}ºC| Isotropic - good Good sidewall coverage
| Good
| Depends on process
| Thicker films deposition with good conformality
|-
| [[Atomic layer deposition|Atomic Layer Deposition layer deposition (ALD)]]
| Metals, metal oxides and nitrides
| ~1{{nbsp}}Å/ cycle. 5-200 <br>5–200{{nbsp}}sec cycle| 50-300ºC50–300ºC| Isotropic - very Very good sidewall coverage
| Good
| Low
| Very good
| 10-100nm10–100{{nbsp}}nm| Very thin, very conformal films such as <br>gate dieletrics, barriers, encapsulation
|}
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