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Deposition

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{| class="wikitable"
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Deposition methodMethod
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Materials
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Deposition rateRate! style="font-weight: bold;" | Substrate temperatureTemperature
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Confomality
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Film densityDensity! style="font-weight: bold;" | Impurity levelsLevels
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Uniformity
! style="font-weight: bold;" | Grain sizeSize! style="font-weight: bold;" | Primary usePrimarily Used for:
|-
| [[Evaporation]]
| Metals and dielectricsDielectrics| 1–15{{nbsp}}1-15 Å/sec| 10–100ºC10-100ºC| No Highly directional - no sidewall coverage
| Poor
| Low
| Poor
| 10–100{{nbsp}}nm10-100nm| [[lift-off]] Works well with liftoff patterning
|-
| [[Sputter deposition]]
| Metals and dielectrics
| 0.1–10{{nbsp}}1-10 Å/sec| 50–300ºC50-300ºC
| Some sidewall coverage
| Good
| Low
| Good
| ~10{{nbsp}}nm10nm| Conformal More conformal metal and dielectric thin filmsfilm deposition. Better stoichiometry than evaporationfor maintaining stoichiometry of compounds
|-
| [[Parylene deposition| CVD Parylene depositionDeposition]]
| Parylene
| ~30–50{{nbsp}}Å30-50Å/sec
| 20ºC
| Good sidewall Sidewall coverage
| Good
| Very lowLow
| Good
| Unknownunknown| Thick (0.8–75μm8-75μm) encapsulation and insulation<br>; Biocompatible
|-
| [[Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition| Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD)]]
| Mainly Dielectrics| 5–200{{nbsp}}Å5-200Å/sec| 200–400ºC200-400ºC
| Some sidewall coverage
| Good
| Very lowLow
| Good
| 10–100{{nbsp}}nm10-100nm| Lower temperature temp oxide/nitride deposition
|-
| [[Low pressure chemical vapor deposition| Low pressure Pressure CVD (LPCVD)]]
| Mainly Dielectrics
| 10–100{{nbsp}}10-100 Å/sec| 600–1200ºC600-1200ºC| Good Isotropic - good sidewall coverage| Very goodGood| Very lowLow| Very goodGood| 1–10{{nbsp}}nm1-10nm
| Better quality oxide/nitride dep where substrate can handle higher temp
|-
| [[Thermal oxidation]]
| Oxide on siliconSilicon| 0.1–100{{nbsp}}1-100 Å/sec| 900–1200ºC900-1200ºC| Very Isotropic - very good sidewall coverage| Very goodGood| Very lowLow| Very goodGood| 1–10{{nbsp}}nm1-10nm
| Best quality oxide when substrate can handle higher temp and slower dep rate
|-
| Conductive Materials
| Depends on process
| 0–100{{nbsp}}ºC0-100ºC| Good Isotropic - good sidewall coverage
| Good
| Depends on process
| Thicker films deposition with good conformality
|-
| [[Atomic layer deposition|Atomic layer deposition Layer Deposition (ALD)]]
| Metals, metal oxides and nitrides
| ~1{{nbsp}}Å/cycle<br>5–200{{nbsp}}. 5-200 sec cycle| 50–300ºC50-300ºC| Very Isotropic - very good sidewall coverage
| Good
| Low
| Very good
| 10–100{{nbsp}}nm10-100nm| Very thin, very conformal films<br>such as gate dieletrics, barriers, encapsulation
|}
{{main|Chemical vapor deposition}}
{{missing information|Parylene deposition}}
In [[chemical vapor deposition]] (CVD), a substrate is typically heated and exposed to one or more gaseous precursors, which decompose and react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired thin film material. CVD can be used to grow high quality, uniform thin films of various materials, such as silicon dioxidemostly insulating or semiconducting, silicon nitride, and many othersmaterials.  CVD can be subdivided into classifications based on pressure requirements (atmospheric (APCVD), low-pressure (LPCVD), and ultra-high vacuum (UHCVD)). LPCVD is used in the LNF to deposit silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and doped and undoped polysilicon. It can also be classified based on the mechanism used to decompose the source gas: plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) breaks apart gas molecules by application of ionizing voltage, whereas LPCVD and APCVD use elevated temperatures to cause the source gas to decompose. PECVD is used in the LNF to deposit silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Catalytic CVD refers to CVD where the surface reaction is facilitated by the presence of a catalyst material on the substrate, or where the substrate itself is a catalyst for the growth reaction. Graphene and carbon nanotubes can be grown by catalytic CVD. Another type of CVD is metalorganic CVD, which uses organometallic gas precursors to grow III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors such as InP, GaN, AlGaAs, etc.
<!--The LNF has fourteen [[Low pressure chemical vapor deposition| Low Pressure CVD (LPCVD)]] furnace tubes for growing doped and undoped polysilicon, silicon dioxide, and silicon nitride. It has five [[Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition| Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD)]] chambers.-->
[[PVD|Physical vapor deposition (PVD)]] describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods used to deposit thin films by the condensation of a vaporized form of the desired film material onto various substrates.
===GrowthThermal Oxidation==={{expand section}}
*[[Thermal oxidation]]
*Carbon nanotube growth
==Figures of merit==
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