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Physical vapor deposition

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The atoms in the vapor from evaporation have only thermal energy and strike the substrate with very little kinetic energy. When depositing thin films in a vacuum chamber that have no kinetic energy, only the light from the source will cause any heat transfer to the wafers. All the evaporators in the LNF are dome/liftoff tools with long throw distances and small/centered point sources. This makes them ideal for liftoff applications, depositions where the substrates cannot handle any plasma heating and thicker films. They are poorly suited for any application requiring sidewall coverage or controlled stress or stoichiometry.
 
===Sputter deposition===
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