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Physical vapor deposition

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===Sputter deposition===
{{main|Sputter deposition}}
Sputter deposition (sputtering) involves exposing a target material to a plasma (typically Ar) which creates accelerated of ions and electrons that are used to "knock" off the target material into and make a cloud of source atoms. The source vapor then condenses onto the substrate forming a thin film.
Sputtering creates energetic atoms that move and collide as they travel thru the gas plasma towards the substrate. These atoms therefore come in at various angles and hit the substrate with some energy defined by the gas pressure and target voltage. Because of the non-normal nature of the plasma, sputtering does coat the sidewalls of the features on the substrate and the kinetic energy of the atoms also causes heating of the substrate during deposition. The heating and sidewall coverage make sputtering less desirable for liftoff applications but more useful when [[conformality|conformal]] coatings are needed. Film stress and chemistry can also be better tuned in sputtering using plasma power/pressure settings and by injecting reactive gasses during deposition.
==Figures of merit==
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