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Electroplating (electrodeposition, electrochemical deposition, plating) is the technique recommended when metal layers of more than a micron of thickness are needed. It is only available on conductive substrates and for conductive films. It is also the technique of choice when there is no line of sight with the surface to be deposited, for example the filling of vias in semiconductor processing. The principle is simple: positive ions are attracted to the negative electrode (anode which is the sample in the case of metal deposition) and negative ions travel towards the cathode or positive electrode. ECD is an electrochemical cell, which consists of a cathode, anode, and electrolyte that contains the ion to be deposited. Electrodeposition does not require a vacuum environment and can be done in batch processes, thus making it relatively inexpensive. It creates thick, durable film whose surface finish can be tailored depending on the requirements.
===Physical vapor deposition (PVD)===
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