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Physical vapor deposition

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==General Film Characteristics==
PVD films in generaly are dominated by island nucleation with low diffusion that then transforms into vertical fibers or columnar growth. Unless there is heating to temperatures that approach 50-70% of the melting point, the growth will not be crystalline with large grains. Evaporation typically grows with fibrous, domed structures while sputtering, which has a bit more energy, has a little more energy and resputtering and , approaches columnar growth.
This, combined If we combine the morphologicaly nature of the film with other factors (source size, gas collisions/mean free path and deposition angle) lead to we can describe general trends in the film:
{| class="wikitable"
|'''Higher Ion Energy'''
*Often denser films, better adhesion, smaller grain size
*Easier to make reactive films using injected gas reactions.
|'''High Vacuum Process'''
|'''Larger source''' - better uniformity
|Rates dependent on melting point + vapor pressure - '''difficult to do alloys ''' (co-dep recommended. ) Some compounds dissociate with heating. |Components typically sputter at similar rates when targets are alloyed to start with. Often knock off '''compounds as molecules'''.
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