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Reactive ion etching

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{{quoteInfobox technology|image = Rieoperation.svg|texttechnology =Plasma etching|names = RIE|equipment = [[:Category:RIE equipment|List of RIE equipment]]}}Reactive-ion etching (RIE) is an a high resolution mechanism for [[etching technology used in microfabrication]] materials using [[Plasma etching|reactive gas discharges]]. It uses chemically reactive plasma is a highly controllable process that can process a wide variety of materials, including [[semiconductors]], [[dielectrics]] and some [[Reactive metals|metals]]. One major advantage to remove material deposited on wafers. The plasma RIE over other forms of etching is generated under low pressure (vacuum) by an electromagnetic field. High-energy ions from that the plasma attack the wafer surface process can be designed to be highly [[Isotropy|anisotropic]], allowing for much finer resolution and react with ithigher aspect ratios.|source= For a detailed overview of RIE, please review the [[wikipediahttps:Reactive//|WikipediayGk7A8kAmb0kQArcKPNlTQ technology workshop]]}}.
{{TOC|limit=2|clear=left}} ==Equipment==Below is a general description of the RIE equipment at the LNF. For a complete list, please see [[:Category:RIE equipment|list of RIE equipment]].<onlyinclude>===P5000 RIE==={{main|P5000 RIE}}The P5000 is a 3 chamber tool designed for production etching. Chambers A and B are configured for SiO<sub>2</sub> and Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> etching, where as chamber C is configured for [[polysilicon]] and amorphous silicon etching. Chambers B and C are restricted to [[CMOS clean]] devices where as chamber A is open to [[semi-clean]] devices. ===STS APS DGRIE==={{main|STS Glass Etcher}}The glass etcher excels at deep etching of [[Fused silica|fused silica]] but it also has a nearly vertical [[silicon dioxide|SiO<sub>2</sub>]] etch. It's capable of very high bias powers enabling it to process difficult to etch materials. ===LAM 9400 SE==={{main|LAM 9400}}The LAM 9400 SE is an [[ICP]] etcher configured with a wide range of gas chemistries. It is mainly used to etch [[polysilicon]] but can also etch [[silicon dioxide|SiO<sub>2</sub>]], [[silicon nitride|Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>]], [[compound semiconductors]], some [[Reactive metals|metals]], and [[polymers|organic]] materials. ===Oxford Plasmalab System 100==={{main|Oxford Plasmalab System 100}}The oxford is another ICP etcher that also has a [[cryogenic etching|cryogenic]] chuck. By cooling the sample down to -150°C nearly vertical etches are possible in certain materials. ===Plasmatherm 790==={{main|Plasmatherm 790}}The Plasmatherm is configured with a variety of gases so that it can etch a wide array of materials. Most recipes tend to have slow etch rates on the order of 200 Å/min which is ideal for very thin films. The tool also has few material restrictions to allow it to process as many things as possible.</onlyinclude> ==Deep reactive ion etching=={{main|Deep reactive ion etching}} Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), while often referring specifically to the [[Wikipedia:Bosch process|Bosch process]], generally is any RIE used to etch high aspect ratio (> 10:1) features. This may be simply a longer, well controlled RIE etch, or may use a specific process such as [[cryogenic etching]] or the [[Wikipedia:Bosch process|Bosch process]]. For all DRIE equipment at the LNF, please refer to the [[:Category:EquipmentDRIE equipment|list of DRIE equipment]]. {{:Deep reactive ion etching}} ==Method of operation==Samples are first masked by one of many patterning processes. They are then placed into a vacuum chamber. Gases are introduced into the chamber and then activated by RF or microwave power to create a plasma consisting of a wide variety of reactive species, ions, and electrons. The reactive species are chosen for their ability to react chemically with the material being etched. A negative DC bias is induced at the substrate by the free electrons which accelerates the ions towards the sample surface. The energy imparted by these ions reaching the surface greatly enhances the effectiveness of the chemical reaction and provides directionality to the etch. Generally some form of [[Etch passivation|passivating]] component is incorporated such that the etch proceeds only where energetic ions strike the surface. ==Parameters==Many of the same parameters used in [[Plasma etching#Parameters|plasma etching]] apply to RIE, including pressure, gas composition, and generator power. Of particular importance is the [[plasma generation]] method (commonly a parallel plate or ICP configuration), as they have different advantages depending on the material being etched. ===DC bias===A critical parameter specific to RIE is the DC bias applied to the sample, which directly affects the physicality of the etch. Many materials (e.g. [[silicon dioxide|SiO<sub>2</sub>]]) require high activation energy to react with the gases in the reactor. Other materials ([[silicon]], in particular) may be etched using a passivating component which must be removed on the surface being etched. Still other materials have little to no reactivity and must be physically removed from the surface. In most reactors, DC bias is not controlled directly, but will depend on the conductance of the plasma and the power applied to the sample. <!--==Materials==RIE can be used to etch a wide variety of materials, including dielectrics, semiconductors, polymers, and some metals. For information on etching specific materials, please review the sections below. ===Dielectric etching==={{main|Dielectric plasma etching}}not sure if I like where this is going... <I have to agree, I think you should save this for tool pages>--> ==Complete tool list==<categorytree mode="pages">RIE equipment</categorytree> ==See also== *[[Plasma etching]]*[[Plasma processing]]<!--==Notes==<footnotes> ==References==<reflist />--> ==Further reading== *[ LNF Tech Talk for RIE]*[ Etching nano features with SF<sub>6</sub>ːO<sub>2</sub> plasma] [[Category:RIE| ]]
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