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Titanium dioxide (a.k.a. Titania, Titanium oxide) is a transparent conductive oxide (TCO). Titanium oxide is a semiconductor with a band gap of 3.2 - 3.5 eV depending on the oxygen vacancies. Widely used as high refractive index optical coating in the visible region. In addition, it is hard and stable in combination with other oxides, widely used in beam splitters, cold mirrors and heat-reflecting mirrors, etc. When layered with SiO2 films, for example, the multi layer stack show excellent durability and low mechanical stress because the tensile stress of titania layers is balanced by the compressive stress of the silica layers.
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