Deposition or Growth refers to the controlled synthesis, growth or transfer of materials as thin films on a substrate. A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness. Based on the growth dynamics which prevail during the deposition, the resulting material can be amorphous, polycrystalline, or crystalline. Deposition techniques which result in crystalline material are often referred to as epitaxial growth.
Typical technologies include atomic layer deposition (ALD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electrodeposition/ electroplating or electrochemical deposition (ECD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Selection of deposition technique depends on material deposited, desired film characteristics and substrate temperature tolerance:
|Deposition method||Materials||Deposition rate||Substrate temperature||Confomality||Film density||Impurity levels||Uniformity||Grain size||Primary use|
|Evaporation||Metals and dielectrics||1–15 Å/sec||10–100ºC||No sidewall coverage||Poor||Low||Poor||10–100 nm||lift-off patterning|
|Sputter deposition||Metals and dielectrics||0.1–10 Å/sec||50–300ºC||Some sidewall coverage||Good||Low||Good||~10 nm||Conformal metal and dielectric thin films. Better stoichiometry than evaporation|
|CVD Parylene deposition||Parylene||~30–50 Å/sec||20ºC||Good sidewall coverage||Good||Very low||Good||Unknown||Thick (0.8–75μm) encapsulation and insulation|
|Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD)||Dielectrics||5–200 Å/sec||200–400ºC||Some sidewall coverage||Good||Very low||Good||10–100 nm||Lower temperature oxide/nitride deposition|
|Low pressure CVD (LPCVD)||Mainly Dielectrics||10–100 Å/sec||600–1200ºC||Good sidewall coverage||Very good||Very low||Very good||1–10 nm||Better quality oxide/nitride dep where substrate can handle higher temp|
|Thermal oxidation||Oxide on silicon||0.1–100 Å/sec||900–1200ºC||Very good sidewall coverage||Very good||Very low||Very good||1–10 nm||Best quality oxide when substrate can handle higher temp and slower dep rate|
|ECD/Plating||Conductive Materials||Depends on process||0–100 ºC||Good sidewall coverage||Good||Depends on process||Depends on process||Depends on Process||Thicker films deposition with good conformality|
|Atomic layer deposition (ALD)||Metals, metal oxides and nitrides||~1 Å/cycle
5–200 sec cycle
|50–300ºC||Very good sidewall coverage||Good||Low||Very good||10–100 nm||Very thin, conformal films|
gate dieletrics, barriers, encapsulation
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
This article is missing information about Parylene deposition.
In chemical vapor deposition (CVD), a substrate is typically heated and exposed to one or more gaseous precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired thin film material. CVD can be used to grow high quality, uniform thin films of various materials, such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and many others. CVD can be subdivided into classifications based on pressure requirements (atmospheric (APCVD), low-pressure (LPCVD), and ultra-high vacuum (UHCVD)). It can also be classified based on the mechanism used to decompose the source gas: plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) breaks apart gas molecules by application of ionizing voltage, whereas LPCVD and APCVD use elevated temperatures to cause the source gas to decompose.
Electroplating (electrodeposition, electrochemical deposition) is the technique recommended when metal layers of more than a micron of thickness are needed. It is only available on conductive substrates and for conductive films. It is also the technique of choice when there is no line of sight with the surface to be deposited, for example the filling of vias in semiconductor processing. The principle is simple: positive ions are attracted to the negative electrode (anode which is the sample in the case of metal deposition) and negative ions travel towards the cathode or positive electrode. ECD is an electrochemical cell, which consists of a cathode, anode, and electrolyte that contains the ion to be deposited. Electrodeposition does not require a vacuum environment and can be done in batch processes, thus making it relatively inexpensive. It creates thick, durable film whose surface finish can be tailored depending on the requirements.
Physical vapor deposition (PVD)
Physical vapor deposition (PVD) describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods used to deposit thin films by the condensation of a vaporized form of the desired film material onto various substrates.
This section requires expansion.
- Thermal oxidation
- Carbon nanotube growth
Figures of merit
Deposition rate, usually expressed in Å/sec, is measured at the substrate using various methods depending on the type of film deposited. It is measured real-time in the evaporators and after run completion for other techniques.
Also known as stoichiometry. Usually expressed in units of atomic % or weight %. Film composition affects film behavior, optical constants, stress, etch rates, and other physical properties like melting point, vapor pressure, etc.
Defines optical properties of a given material for a specific frequency or wavelength of light. Also known as index of refraction, or n. The refractive index of a film can be measured using Ellipsometry and also gives clues as to the density, dielectric constant, and stoichiometry of the film .
Conformality or Step Coverage
Step coverage is the measure of how much coating is on the bottom/sidewall of a feature vs. how much coating is on the top/field areas. It is highly dependent on the geometry of the features and the type of deposition chosen. ALD, TEOS, HTO, and thermal oxide are very conformal. LTO, PECVD, sputtering, and evaporation are much less conformal.
The elastic mismatch between the thin film deposited and the substrate that results in a change in substrate curvature. Residual stress is typically defined by a unit of measurement (MPa) across a given area.
This section requires expansion.
- Handbook of Thin Film Deposition: Processes and Technologies
- Other stuff, e.g. technology workshop slides
- External links (can be in another section below, if appropriate)