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Deposition is any process that grows, coats, or otherwise transfers a material onto the substrate.


Typical technologies include physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electrodeposition/ electroplating or electrochemical deposition (ECD), and atomic layer deposition (ALD).

Physical vapor deposition (PVD)

Physical vapor deposition (PVD) describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods used to deposit thin films by the condensation of a vaporized form of the desired film material onto various substrates.

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) consists of the substrate being exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit. There are many methods for enhancing the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. The LNF has thirteen furnace tubes and four systems.

Electrodeposition/ Electroplating/ Electrochemical deposition (ECD)


Atomic layer deposition (ALD)

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) at the LNF is performed on the Oxford OpAL ALD system that currently offers three films Alumina/Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3), Hafnia/Hafnium Oxide (HfO2), and Zinc Oxide (ZnO).

Figures of merit

Deposition rate

Refractive index


Thermal budget

Wet etch rate (WER)