Enerjet Evaporator

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Enerjet Evaporator
Equipment Details
Technology PVD
Materials Restriction Metals
Material Processed Pt, Au, Cr, Ti, Al
Sample Size 6", 4", 3" and 2" wafers, pieces
Equipment Manual
Overview System Overview
Operating Procedure SOP
Supported Processes Supported Processes
Maintenance Maintenance

The Enerjet Evaporator is an electron beam evaporator used to deposit Pt, Au, Cr, Ti and Al. It is an open loop box coater with a dome that can run multiple wafers and substrates in each run.

All the e-beam evaporators in the LNF are setup using small point sources and long throw distances that lead to very directional deposition with minimal heat transfer. The “line of sight” nature means that evaporated films have poor gap fill but make the tool ideal to use for lift-off applications. The evaporators in the LNF use thin films controllers with quartz crystal monitor feedback. These controllers pre-heat the source materials with the shutter closed. Then, during deposition, the controller uses the feedback from the crystal monitor and varies the e-beam power to maintain a steady, preset deposition rate and to determine the total evaporation thickness.


  • 6/3/22 - Updated Pt max thickness to 3500A


  • Multi-wafer lift-off evaporator
    • Higher deposition rate (5-15 Å/sec) metal films on multiple wafers
    • Designed for low heat transfer and minimal sidewall coverage for liftoff applications
    • Stacks of multiple films can be run

System Overview

Hardware Details

  • Cryo-pumped box coater capable of low 10-6 Torr base pressure in 1 hr of pumping
  • No reactive gasses or heating run on this tool
  • 5x15cc pocket E-beam gun to allow 5 different materials to be deposited in one run
  • Large distance from source and curved substrate dome designed for lift-off applications
  • Dome rotation and curved uniformity plate to allow for better uniformity

Substrate Requirements

  • 2”, 3”, 4” and 6” wafer holders available as well as clip fixtures for smaller pieces
  • Tool holds 9x4” or 4x6” fixtures.

Material Restrictions

The Enerjet Evaporator is designated as a Metals class tool. Below is a list of approved materials for the tool. Approved means the material is allowed in the tool under normal circumstances. If a material is not listed, please create a helpdesk ticket or email info@lnf.umich.edu for any material requests or questions.

Supported Processes

  • Five films are available:
    • Platinum (Pt) (3500 Å MAX, 5 Å/sec)
    • Gold (Au) (10000 Å MAX, 10 Å/sec)
    • Chromium (Cr) (1000 Å MAX, 10 Å/sec)
    • Titanium (Ti) (1.5 µm MAX, 15 Å/sec)
    • Aluminum (Al) (1.5 µm MAX, 15 Å/sec)
  • Any combination of these films can be run. They are programmed 3 at a time in the XTC2 thin films controller.\
  • In the evaporators, maximum thickness numbers are total thickness of that material per run and are determined by stress or material availible. If you run multiple layers of the same material, the total sum thickness of those layers must be below the maximum.
  • Each of the 5 metals has a standard XTC film program outlined on the Standard Processes page. These films can be run in any order by programming them 3 at a time in the XTC controller.

Depositing other Materials

  • This tool only supports these 5 materials. If you have a material deposition need that is not listed, check to see if this material is deposited on another PVD tool or see more about options for running your own private material on the LNF PVD Films page.

Standard Operating Procedure

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Checkout Procedure

How to get access to this evaporator:

  1. Complete the online PVD Rise Training and the Evaporator Rise training (this only needs to completed once so if you are authorized on another PVD tool or evaporator, you do not need to do it again.)
  2. Read through this Wiki page and the Operating Procedure above.
  3. Create a Helpdesk Ticket requesting training
  4. A tool engineer or user services member will contact you for a training session.
  5. Practice with your mentor or another authorized user until you are comfortable with tool operation.
  6. Schedule a checkout session with a tool engineer via the helpdesk ticket system. If this checkout is successful, the engineer will authorize you on the tool.


The Enerjet is opened for scheduled maintenance:

  • Once a week and the gun area is cleaned and shutter is replaced.
  • The chamber dome, sidewalls, shutters and covers are cleaned with foil replacement as needed (approximately once every 2-4 months.)
  • Tool leak checks, pumping speeds and film characterization are done periodically or when major tool changes are done.
  • Rough pump oil is changed once every 2 months. Cryo absorbers are replaced annually.

Tool Pumping Performance

Pumping speeds and Leak-up rates vary based on chamber sidewall deposition and outside conditions such as humidity and time tool was open.

Enerjet pumping speed - tool crosses over to hi-vac in 5-5.5 minutes

Process Characterization

5 Films are run in the Enerjet - Pt, Au, Cr, Ti and Al

Power Bump Recovery

The only maintenance that users are allowed to perform is power interruption recovery.

  • In the event of a power interruption, try to get the tool and cryo powered back on within 10-15 minutes. This will save 8-12 hours of down time lost to a cryo regen.
  • Follow the power bump section of the Enerjet Startup and Shutdown Procedure
  • If recovery cannot be done in time this procedure will refer you to the Enerjet Cryo Regen Procedure