Difference between revisions of "Sputter deposition"

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[[{{PAGENAME}}]] is a [[physical vapor deposition]] method of thin film deposition in which a high-purity source material (called a cathode or target) is subjected to a gas plasma (typically [[argon]]). The energetic atoms in this gas plasma collide with the target material and knock off source atoms which then travel to the substrate and condense into a thin film.
 
[[{{PAGENAME}}]] is a [[physical vapor deposition]] method of thin film deposition in which a high-purity source material (called a cathode or target) is subjected to a gas plasma (typically [[argon]]). The energetic atoms in this gas plasma collide with the target material and knock off source atoms which then travel to the substrate and condense into a thin film.
  
==Method of operation==
+
==Equipment==
{{expand section}} 
+
The LNF has 4 sputter deposition tools
 +
* [[Endeavor_M1_AlN_Sputter_Tool|Endeavor M1 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool]]
 +
* [[Lab 18-1|Lab 18-1]]
 +
* [[Lab 18-2|Lab 18-2]]
 +
* [[PVD 75 Proline|PVD 75]]
  
==Applications==
+
===Endeavor M1 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool===
{{expand section}}
+
{{main|Endeavor_M1_AlN_Sputter_Tool}}  
 +
*Materials deposited:  AlN, Al
 +
*The Endeavor M1 tool is designed specifically for '''Piezoelectric AlN on either 4" or 6" wafers'''. It is a high temperature process that works only on certain substrates with specific seeding materials and the handler is designed to process both 4" (via 6" carrier) or 6" wafers.
  
==Figures of merit==
+
===Lab 18-1===
{{cleanup|section|reason=the subsection headings are wordy and there is a lot more depth than necessary}}
+
{{main|Lab 18-1}}
The figures of merit are described in the generic [[Physical vapor deposition | PVD]] page
+
*Materials Deposited: [[Al2O3|Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>]], [[Indium tin oxide|ITO]], [[Molybdenum|Mo]], [[Silicon|Si]], [[Silicon dioxide|SiO<sub>2</sub>]], [[Silicon nitride|Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>]], [[Tantalum|Ta]], [[Tantalum|Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>]], [[Titanium|Ti]], [[Titanium dioxide|TiO<sub>2</sub>]], [[Vanadium|V]], [[Vanadium Pentoxide|V2O5]]
===Responses of figures of merit with parameter changes===
+
*Lab 18-1 is a loadlocked magnetron sputter tool used for depositing '''less common metals, insulators, optical and semiconductive films.'''    It has a variable-gated turbo pump and more sensitive gas flows that allow it to run more sensitive gas ratios (<1%) for reactive sputtering.  It has a DC supply for conductive materials and RF supplies for electrically insulating materials.    Deposition rates vary by material but are generally much slower for RF depositions.    The tool supports 5 materials at a time, rotated using the [https://docs.google.com/a/lnf.umich.edu/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AsWeTTMTotIfdExOSHBhSVQ4dUpyRFFpWE5icEMwZlE#gid=23|Lab 18-1 Target Change Calendar]
====Deposition Rate, Stress, Resistivity and Step Coverage====
 
Although many films (especially reactive films and insulating compounds) may vary in their response, typical sputtering variables can be summarized in this trend chart:
 
  
<gallery mode="packed-hover"  heights="600px">
+
===Lab 18-2===
Sputter Process Trend Chart.jpg
+
{{main|Lab 18-2}}
</gallery>
+
*Materials: [[Aluminum|Al]],[[Chromium|Cr]],[[Gold|Au]],[[Iridium|Ir]],[[Nickel|Ni]],[[Platinum|Pt]],[[Silver|Ag]],[[Titanium|Ti]],[[Tungsten|W]],[[Tungsten:Titanium-9:1|W-Ti]]
 +
*Lab 18-2 is a loadlocked magnetron sputter tool used for mostly for '''depositing common and precious metals.'''    The tool supports 5 materials at a time, rotated using the [https://docs.google.com/a/lnf.umich.edu/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AsWeTTMTotIfdGxLMlpVZm1NSlF0SDJMU3hvRFctR1E#gid=13|Lab 18-2 Target Change Calendar]
  
====Uniformity====
+
===PVD 75 Sputter Tool===
Uniformity is set by the material being deposited and the geometry of the system: throw distance, target size, substrate rotation and deposition angle.
+
{{main|PVD 75 Proline}}
*In sputtering, uniformity is determined by throw distance and the shape of the deposition cone.
+
*Materials deposited: [[Al2O3|Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>]], [[Aluminum|Al]], [[Chromium|Cr]], [[Copper|Cu]], [[Cobalt|Co]], [[Iron|Fe]], [[Molybdenum|Mo]], [[Silicon|Si]], [[Silicon dioxide|SiO<sub>2</sub>]], [[Silicon nitride|Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>]], [[Nickel|Ni]], [[Silver|Ag]], [[Titanium|Ti]], [[Tungsten|W]]
**In the Denton and Lab 18 tools, smaller sources eject material from the face of a 3" target that is angled to cover around 1/2 of the substrate area.   The substrate is rotated to coat the entire area.    Varying the angle will vary the throw distance and change the amount deposited on the center and edge.  The supplies have a set throw angle that is optimized for best uniformity.
+
*The PVD 75 tool is designed specifically for '''point of use processing of materials not allowed or not currently in the Lab 18 tools.''' It is an open loop (non-loadlocked) tool with easier-to-change targets.  Qualified users can change targets when they vent the chamber to load their samples.
**In the ALN tool, the wafer is centered over two targets which are larger than the substrateUniformity can be only be adjusted using the DC supply which raises and lowers the power to the center target.
 
  
 
==Materials==
 
==Materials==
The following materials can be deposited using Magnetron{{clarify}} sputter deposition at the LNF.
+
The following materials can be deposited via Magnetron sputter deposition at the LNF. Please note some materials are rarely used in these cases, additional work will be needed to validate process conditions and the rate of deposition.
 
*[[Aluminum|Aluminum(Al)]]
 
*[[Aluminum|Aluminum(Al)]]
 
*[[Aluminum oxide|Aluminum oxide(Al2O3)]]
 
*[[Aluminum oxide|Aluminum oxide(Al2O3)]]
 
*[[Chromium|Chromium(Cr)]]
 
*[[Chromium|Chromium(Cr)]]
 
*[[Copper|Copper(Cu)]]
 
*[[Copper|Copper(Cu)]]
 +
*[[Cobalt|Cobalt(Co)]]
 
*[[Gold|Gold (Au)]]
 
*[[Gold|Gold (Au)]]
 +
<!--*[[Germanium|Germanium(Ge)]]-->
 
*[[Germanium|Germanium(Ge)]]
 
*[[Germanium|Germanium(Ge)]]
 
*[[Iron|Iron(Fe)]]
 
*[[Iron|Iron(Fe)]]
 +
*[[Indium tin oxide|Indium tin oxide(ITO)]]
 +
*[[Molybdenum|Molybdenum(Mo)]]
 
*[[Nickel|Nickel (Ni)]]
 
*[[Nickel|Nickel (Ni)]]
 
*[[Platinum|Platinum(Pt)]]
 
*[[Platinum|Platinum(Pt)]]
 +
*[[Silicon|Silicon (Si)]]
 
*[[Silicon dioxide|Silicon dioxide(SiO2)]]
 
*[[Silicon dioxide|Silicon dioxide(SiO2)]]
 
*[[Silicon nitride|Silicon nitride(SiN)]]
 
*[[Silicon nitride|Silicon nitride(SiN)]]
 
*[[Silver|Silver(Ag)]]
 
*[[Silver|Silver(Ag)]]
 +
*[[Tantalum|Tantalum(Ta)]]
 +
*[[Tantalum oxide|Tantalum oxide(Ta2O5)]]
 
*[[Titanium|Titanium(Ti)]]
 
*[[Titanium|Titanium(Ti)]]
*[[Titanium dioxide|Titanium dioxide(TiO2)]]
+
*[[Titanium oxide|Titanium oxide(TiO2)]]
*[[Zinc|Zinc(Zn)]]
+
<!--*[[Titanium dioxide|Titanium dioxide(TiO2)]]-->
 +
*[[Tungsten|Tungsten(W)]]
 +
*[[Tungsten-Titanium 90:10|Tungsten-Titanium 90:10(W-Ti)]]
 +
*[[Vanadium|Vanadium(V)]]
 +
*[[Vanadium Pentoxide|Vanadium Pentoxide(V2O5)]]
  
==Equipment==
+
==Method of operation==
The LNF has 4 sputter deposition tools
+
Sputtering is not typically done on liftoff samples or shadow masks. Therefore it is typically done as a blanket deposition that will be patterned and etched later if patterning is needed. Samples should be clean and vacuum-safe and should be able to handle a small amount of plasma heating. It is recommended that if there is any organic processing done to samples that they are cleaned in an oxygen plasma.
** [[Lab 18-1|Lab 18-1]]
+
 
** [[Lab 18-2|Lab 18-2]]
+
Samples are introduced into a vacuum chamber (either loaded in a vented chamber or sent in from a loadlock) with the proper source target materials. The sample is heated and etched before deposition if the process requires it. Ar is then introduced to the chamber until a desired sputtering pressure is reached and then power is applied the targets to strike a sputtering plasma. The target power is then ramped up slowly while being shielded from the samples by a shutter. Once the pre-sputter sequence is finished, the shutter opens and the deposition is timed to achieve the desired thickness of film. The shutter closes, power is ramped down and the sputtering Ar gas is pumped out. Multiple films may be run by repeating this process with a different source targets. The samples are then removed from the chamber and the tool is pumped back to a low base pressure.
** [[AMS 2004 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool|AMS 2004 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool]]
 
** [[Denton Explorer-14|Denton Explorer-14]]
 
  
===Lab 18-1===
+
==Applications==
{{main|Lab 18-1}}
+
{{expand section}}
*Materials Deposited: [[Al2O3|Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>]], [[Indium-Tin-Oxide|ITO]], [[Molybdenum|Mo]], [[Silicon|Si]], [[Silicon Dioxide|SiO<sub>2</sub>]], [[Silicon Nitride|Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>]], [[Tantalum|Ta]], [[Tantalum|Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>]], [[Titanium|Ti]], [[Titanium Dioxide|TiO<sub>2</sub>]]
 
*Lab 18-1 is a loadlocked magnetron sputter tool used for depositing metals, insulators, optical and semiconductive films.    It has a variable-gated turbo pump and more sensitive gas flows that allow it to run more sensitive gas ratios (<1%) for reactive sputtering.  It has a DC supply for conductive materials and RF supplies for electrically insulating materials.    Deposition rates vary by material but are generally mich slower for RF depositions.    The tool supports 5 materials at a time, rotated using the [https://docs.google.com/a/lnf.umich.edu/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AsWeTTMTotIfdExOSHBhSVQ4dUpyRFFpWE5icEMwZlE#gid=23|Lab 18-1 Target Change Calendar]
 
  
===Lab 18-2===
+
==Figures of merit==
{{main|Lab 18-2}}
+
The figures of merit are described in the generic [[Physical vapor deposition | PVD]] page
*Materials: [[Aluminum|Al]],[[Chromium|Cr]],[[Copper|Cu]],[[Gold|Au]],[[Iridium|Ir]],[[Nickel|Ni]],[[Platinum|Pt]],[[Silver|Ag]],[[Titanium|Ti]]
+
===Responses of figures of merit with parameter changes===
*Lab 18-2 is a loadlocked magnetron sputter tool used for mostly for depositing metals.    It uses DC for conductive materials and RF for electrically insulating materials.    Deposition rates vary by material but are generally slower for RF depositions.    The tool supports 5 materials at a time, rotated using the [https://docs.google.com/a/lnf.umich.edu/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AsWeTTMTotIfdGxLMlpVZm1NSlF0SDJMU3hvRFctR1E#gid=13|Lab 18-2 Target Change Calendar]
+
====Deposition Rate, Stress, Resistivity and Step Coverage====
 +
Although many films (especially reactive films and insulating compounds) may vary in their response, typical sputtering variables can be summarized in this trend chart:
  
===Denton Explorer===
+
<gallery mode="packed-hover"  heights="600px">
{{main|Denton Explorer}}
+
Sputter Process Trend Chart.jpg
*The Denton Explorer is an open-loop 2-source magnetron sputter tool used as a Lab 18 backup for depositing metal films
+
</gallery>
  
===AMS 2004 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool===
+
====Uniformity====
{{main|AMS 2004 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool}}
+
Uniformity is set by the material being deposited and the geometry of the system: throw distance, target size, substrate rotation and deposition angle.
*Materials deposited: AlN, Al
+
*In sputtering, uniformity is determined by throw distance and the shape of the deposition cone.
*The AMS tool is designed specifically for Piezoelectric AlN on 4" wafers.    It is a high temperature process that works only on certain substrates with specific seeding matetrials and the handler is only designed for 4" wafers are this time.
+
**In the PVD 75 and Lab 18 tools, smaller sources eject material from the face of a 3" target that is angled to cover around 1/2 of the substrate area.    The substrate is rotated to coat the entire area.    Varying the angle will vary the throw distance and change the amount deposited on the center and edge.  The supplies have a set throw angle that is optimized for best uniformity.
 +
**In the ALN tool, the wafer is centered over two targets which are larger than the substrate.  Uniformity can be only be adjusted using the DC supply which raises and lowers the power to the center target.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
Line 91: Line 96:
 
-->
 
-->
 
==Further reading==
 
==Further reading==
 +
*[http://lnf-wiki.eecs.umich.edu/wiki/User_Resources#LNF_Tech_Talks_.28technology_seminar_series.29 LNF Tech Talk for PVD]
 
*[[Wikipedia:Sputter_deposition|General Overview: Wikipedia Sputter Deposition]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:Sputter_deposition|General Overview: Wikipedia Sputter Deposition]]
 +
 +
<!-- Do not add anything below this point besides categories. Which you are welcome to add more to, if appropriate -->
 +
[[Category:PVD]]

Latest revision as of 14:28, 21 March 2022

Sputter deposition
Sputter Deposition.png
Technology Details
Technology PVD
Materials Ag, Al, Al2O3, Au, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ge, Ni, Pt, SiO2, Ti, TiO2, Zn

Sputter deposition is a physical vapor deposition method of thin film deposition in which a high-purity source material (called a cathode or target) is subjected to a gas plasma (typically argon). The energetic atoms in this gas plasma collide with the target material and knock off source atoms which then travel to the substrate and condense into a thin film.

Equipment

The LNF has 4 sputter deposition tools

Endeavor M1 Aluminum Nitride Sputter Tool

  • Materials deposited: AlN, Al
  • The Endeavor M1 tool is designed specifically for Piezoelectric AlN on either 4" or 6" wafers. It is a high temperature process that works only on certain substrates with specific seeding materials and the handler is designed to process both 4" (via 6" carrier) or 6" wafers.

Lab 18-1

Main article: Lab 18-1
  • Materials Deposited: Al2O3, ITO, Mo, Si, SiO2, Si3N4, Ta, Ta2O5, Ti, TiO2, V, V2O5
  • Lab 18-1 is a loadlocked magnetron sputter tool used for depositing less common metals, insulators, optical and semiconductive films. It has a variable-gated turbo pump and more sensitive gas flows that allow it to run more sensitive gas ratios (<1%) for reactive sputtering. It has a DC supply for conductive materials and RF supplies for electrically insulating materials. Deposition rates vary by material but are generally much slower for RF depositions. The tool supports 5 materials at a time, rotated using the 18-1 Target Change Calendar

Lab 18-2

Main article: Lab 18-2

PVD 75 Sputter Tool

Main article: PVD 75 Proline
  • Materials deposited: Al2O3, Al, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mo, Si, SiO2, Si3N4, Ni, Ag, Ti, W
  • The PVD 75 tool is designed specifically for point of use processing of materials not allowed or not currently in the Lab 18 tools. It is an open loop (non-loadlocked) tool with easier-to-change targets. Qualified users can change targets when they vent the chamber to load their samples.

Materials

The following materials can be deposited via Magnetron sputter deposition at the LNF. Please note some materials are rarely used in these cases, additional work will be needed to validate process conditions and the rate of deposition.

Method of operation

Sputtering is not typically done on liftoff samples or shadow masks. Therefore it is typically done as a blanket deposition that will be patterned and etched later if patterning is needed. Samples should be clean and vacuum-safe and should be able to handle a small amount of plasma heating. It is recommended that if there is any organic processing done to samples that they are cleaned in an oxygen plasma.

Samples are introduced into a vacuum chamber (either loaded in a vented chamber or sent in from a loadlock) with the proper source target materials. The sample is heated and etched before deposition if the process requires it. Ar is then introduced to the chamber until a desired sputtering pressure is reached and then power is applied the targets to strike a sputtering plasma. The target power is then ramped up slowly while being shielded from the samples by a shutter. Once the pre-sputter sequence is finished, the shutter opens and the deposition is timed to achieve the desired thickness of film. The shutter closes, power is ramped down and the sputtering Ar gas is pumped out. Multiple films may be run by repeating this process with a different source targets. The samples are then removed from the chamber and the tool is pumped back to a low base pressure.

Applications

Figures of merit

The figures of merit are described in the generic PVD page

Responses of figures of merit with parameter changes

Deposition Rate, Stress, Resistivity and Step Coverage

Although many films (especially reactive films and insulating compounds) may vary in their response, typical sputtering variables can be summarized in this trend chart:

Uniformity

Uniformity is set by the material being deposited and the geometry of the system: throw distance, target size, substrate rotation and deposition angle.

  • In sputtering, uniformity is determined by throw distance and the shape of the deposition cone.
    • In the PVD 75 and Lab 18 tools, smaller sources eject material from the face of a 3" target that is angled to cover around 1/2 of the substrate area. The substrate is rotated to coat the entire area. Varying the angle will vary the throw distance and change the amount deposited on the center and edge. The supplies have a set throw angle that is optimized for best uniformity.
    • In the ALN tool, the wafer is centered over two targets which are larger than the substrate. Uniformity can be only be adjusted using the DC supply which raises and lowers the power to the center target.

See also

Further reading