Substrate bonding

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Substrate bonding refers to attaching two or more substrates of material such as glass or silicon, to each other by means of various chemical and physical effects. Substrate bonding is mainly used in MEMS, where sensor components are encapsulated in the application. The most common types of bonding are adhesive, anodic, eutectic, fusion, glass frit, direct wafer or fusion bonding, and metallic diffusion.


There are 7 primary methods which define substrate bonding technology. These have been mentioned above and are described in detail below.

Adhesive bonding

Main article: Adhesive bonding

Uses a layer of polymer or adhesive, including epoxies, dry films, BCB, polyimides, and UV curable compounds between the substrates to bond the substrates together. This introduces a foreign material between your substrates, but there is a wide variety of materials that can make this method desirable for it's extremely wide range of temperature and control.

Anodic bonding

Main article: Anodic bonding

This type of bonding involves encapsulating components on a silicon wafer by means of ionic glass. When ionic glass is heated, it becomes increasingly less insulating. When a high voltage is applied, current is able to flow which causes the migration of the ions in the glass.

Technology 3

Main article: Eutectic bonding

Eutectic wafer bonding takes advantage of the special properties of eutectic metals. Similar to soldering alloys, such metals melt already at low temperatures. This property allows planar surfaces to be achieved.

In order to control reflow of the eutectic material, eutectic bonding requires precise dosing of the bonding force and even temperature distribution.

Technology 4

Main article: Fusion bonding

Here's another technology in that group.

Technology 5

Main article: Glass frit bonding

Here's another technology in that group.

Technology 6

Here's another technology in that group.

Technology 7

Here's another technology in that group.

Figures of Merit

What is important to look for in the technology? Etch/dep rate? Resolution?


Subheadings are optional.


How is this technology used in nanofabrication and what types of devices/research areas is it useful in?


Specific equipment for each technology can be found on its page above. Additionally, below is a list of all metrology equipment in the LNF:

See also

Other related wiki pages


Further reading

  • Other stuff, e.g. technology workshop slides
  • External links (can be in another section below, if appropriate)